DEISM AND CULTURAL RELIGIONS

"Deism" is a name given to the only religion that is known to all human beings regardless of time and place. Deism is called "natural" religion because its principles are known from nature and human reasoning.

In contrast to Deism (which is a universal religion), there are many "cultural" religions, such as Judaism, Islam, Trinitarian Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Shintoism, and others, which were developed in particular societies by individuals and groups living in certain geographical areas.

A cultural religion is taught to persons born in or living in an area where the cultural religion is dominant. For example, if you were born in Saudi Arabia, you would probably be a Muslim (Islamic religion); if you were born in China, you would probably be a Buddhist; if you were born in Spain, you would probably be a Catholic (Trinitarian); if you were born in Salt Lake City, you would probably be a Mormon, etc.

Of course, some individuals leave the cultural religions that they learned as children, but most persons never leave their cultural religions because such religions are interwoven into the cultural fabric of their particular society. Membership in the cultural religion is expected if a person wants to be "in good standing" in a particular community or society.

Unfortunately, most cultural religions are "exclusive" religions; that is, each cultural religion claims to possess "truths" that have been revealed only to the founder or leaders of that cultural religion. Often the claim is made that God revealed these "truths" through "supernatural means" such as "angels, mystical visions, and tablets of stone or gold." The alleged benefits of a cultural religion are available only to those persons who know of and "believe in" that cultural religion. All other persons are viewed as "unbelievers" and "infidels" who, allegedly, will be punished by God for their "unbelief."

The so-called "supernatural truths" in a cultural religion are written into a book, such as "The Holy Bible," "The Holy Qur'an (aka Koran)," "The Book of Mormon," etc., which must be revered and obeyed by "believers" who expect a reward for their obedience. These "believers" often shun and sometimes persecute the "unbelievers" or "infidels."

The history of the world has repeatedly shown what happens when two "cultural" religions clash in a particular geographical area. Often, political leaders use their cultural religion as an excuse for expanding political control over other countries in order to seize the natural resources of those other countries.

For example, when the Jews invaded Canaan and eventually took political control of the land, the Jews claimed that God had given Canaan to the Jews so they could establish the Kingdom of Israel and replace the Canaanite religion with the Jewish "true" religion. When the Arab Muslims invaded the same land about 1,800 years later, the Muslims claimed that they had been commanded by God to conquer the land and establish the Islamic "true" religion there. It is clear that the Jewish and Arab political leaders used their cultural religions to fan the flames of religious zeal to motivate their people to conquer other lands and take control of the natural resources.

Today, the Israeli Jews and the Arab Muslims battle for control of the same land, and their political leaders use religious leaders to enflame their people in the conflict. In their blind religious zeal, both sides commit inhumane acts in the name of their God: Jehovah or Allah. In following the dictates of their own "cultural" religions, many of the Israeli Jews and the Palestinian Muslims are violating God's natural law that requires love, or compassion, for all "neighbors," (including those "neighbors" who are viewed as "enemies"), as taught by the deist Jesus (Luke 10:30-37; Luke 6:27; Matthew 5:44).

The man known as Jesus of Nazareth was as Jew. His cultural religion was an ancient form of Judaism which led the Jews to conquer the land of Caanan by military force and rule it politically. In Jesus' day, the Jews had lost political control of the land and were ruled by the Roman Empire.

Jesus joined a religious/political revolutionary movement which was led by John the Baptizer. The purpose of the revolutionary movement was to free the Jews from the Romans and reestablish the Kingdom of Israel, which the Jews called the "kingdom of heaven" (aka "kingdom of God"), and in which the Jews expected to enjoy peace and prosperity. Like John the Baptizer, Jesus initially viewed the "Kingdom of God" as exclusively for the Jews. When Jesus sent his disciples out into the countryside to announce the coming of the "kingdom of God," Jesus instructed his disciples to "Go nowhere among the Gentiles (non-Jews), and enter no town of the Samaritans (people of mixed race and religion), but go rather to the house of Israel (the Jews). And preach as you go, saying, 'The kingdom of heaven is at hand'." (Matthew 10:5-7)

As Jesus preached his message about the coming of the "Kingdom of God," he encountered Gentiles, Samaritans, and Romans who had the same human needs and hopes that the Jews had (Matthew 15:22-28; Matthew 8:5-13; John 4:46-53: Luke 7:1-9). Jesus revised his view of the "Kingdom of God" to include everyone who was willing to love God and "neighbor" (Mark 12:28-34) and Jesus gave up the idea that the "rule of God" would come on earth through military force (Matthew 26:52). Jesus preached "repentance" (turning away from lovelessness) and "forgiveness" of others as the way to establish the "Kingdom of God" on earth.

Jesus tried to reform his "cultural" religion. Jesus said that "love your neighbor" meant more than just loving your "Jewish" neighbor. It meant having compassion on anyone who is suffering, even those who are considered "enemies" (Matthew 5:43-47; Luke 10:29-37). Jesus taught that evil behavior begins with evil thoughts (Matthew 5:21-22, 27-28). He taught that good deeds can be done any time, even on the Sabbath that ordinarily is a day of rest (Matthew 12:9-14). He opposed the commercializing of religion by the money-changers who earned their living off of pilgrims who came from distant places to worship in the temple at Jerusalem (Matthew 21:12-13). He opposed the blood sacrifices that were part of the temple rituals which were intended as atonements for sin (Mark 12:32-33; Matthew 12:7). He urged people to pray in private, and not make a public display of prayer or giving of alms to the poor (Matthew 6:1-6).

It is no wonder that the religious leaders of the Jewish "cultural" religion viewed Jesus as a dangerous heretic and a revolutionary who might also offend the Roman rulers and cause them to take revenge on the Jews by destroying the Jewish temple and the Jewish capital city, Jerusalem (John 11:48).

Jesus' determination to preach his vision of the "Kingdom of God on earth" eventually led to his crucifixion. After surviving his brief crucifixion, the wounded Jesus met briefly with his disciples to charge them with the mission of preaching "repentance and forgiveness of sins" to all nations (Luke 24:47). Some days later, Jesus departed from his disciples. Various and conflicting stories are told about Jesus' departure. Some of his disciples believed that Jesus had temporarily "ascended to God in heaven" and would return to the earth during the disciples' lifetimes. But Jesus was never seen again by his disciples.

During the next four hundred years, a "cultural" religion was created around Jesus. This religion was based on the teachings of a man named Paul from the city of Tarsus. Paul claimed that Jesus was the divine Son of God who was sent by God the Father to die as a sacrifice to atone for the sins of humankind (Philippians 2:6). Paul was a Jew who compared Jesus' crucifixion to the Jewish practice of blood sacrifice in the temple as an atonement for sins (Romans 5:8-9).

Church leaders took Paul's view that Jesus was the only divine "Son of God" and added that Jesus, together with "God the Father" and the "Holy Spirit," was to be worshipped as one God, officially stating this doctrine of the "trinity of God" at the Council at Constantinople in the year 381 (of the Christian Era) and reaffirming this doctrine at the Council at Chalcedon in 451 CE. Church leaders, such as Athanasius, also adopted Paul's theory that Jesus' crucifixion was a "blood sacrifice" to atone for the sins of humankind. This theology became known as "trinitarianism," and this is the cultural religion taught in Trinitarian Christian churches today.

Actually, Jesus' own religious beliefs have nothing to do with the theology which is taught in Trinitarian Christian churches. Jesus was a "deist" because he taught the truth which he discovered in himself. Jesus described himself as only "a man who has told you the truth which I heard from God" (John 8:40) but he made no exclusive claim to knowing God's truth (or God's will). Jesus said that everyone is taught directly by God (John 6:45), and those who seek to follow God's truth, or God's will, are able to recognize that Jesus taught this same truth, and are attracted to Jesus (John 6:45; John 7:17).

In the 17th and 18th centuries, some Deists in England began a reform movement to return Christianity to the natural religion, or deism, of Jesus. These Deists became known as "Christian Deists." Christian Deists recognized that natural religion can be summarized as "love for God, and love for neighbor (everyone)" as Jesus taught. The practice of love for God and neighbor is necessarily accompanied by the practice of repentance and forgiveness.

We should repent of (turn away from) any failure to love, and seek forgiveness from God. When possible, we should also seek forgiveness from any person whom we have failed to love. We receive forgiveness from God if we are willing to forgive other persons who repent of their failures to love us (Luke 11:4; Matthew 6:14-15). Christian Deists believe that by love, repentance, and forgiveness, we are doing God's will that brings us a sense of inner peace and joy, and helps to create the "kingdom of God" on earth where people can live together in unity and peace.

Brother John

June 25, 2002

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